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PM2.5 Associated Phenols, Phthalates, and Water Soluble Ions from Five Stationary Combustion Sources

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 20 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 61-71
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.11.0602
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To cite this article:
Li, Z., Guo, S., Li, Z., Wang, Y., Hu, Y., Xing, Y., Liu, G., Fang, R. and Zhu, H. (2020). PM2.5 Associated Phenols, Phthalates, and Water Soluble Ions from Five Stationary Combustion Sources. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 61-71. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.11.0602.

Zhiyong Li 1,2, Songtao Guo1, Zhenxin Li1, Yutong Wang1, Yao Hu1, Yiran Xing1, Guoqing Liu1, Rui Fang1, Hongtao Zhu1

  • 1 A Hebei Key Lab of Power Plant Flue Gas Multi-Pollutants Control, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, China
  • 2 MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Ministry of Education, Beijing 102206, China


  • PAEs, phenols and WSIs were analyzed for 5 burning sources.
  • WCC possessed highest PAEs and daily intakes for people.
  • Cl had high levels among all the 5 sources.
  • Highest phenol was detected in WCC.
  • WS had high phenols contents due to the use of phenolic pesticides.


Phenols and phthalates (PAEs) are always linked with the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), while the water soluble ions (WSIs) are connected to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). A total of PM2.5 associated 20 phenols, 6 phthalates, and 9 WSIs were detected using GC-MS, ICS-1100, ICP-OES, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer for 5 stationary incineration sources including the domestic garbage (DG), garbage-fired power plant (GFPP), workshop of cable combustion for metal reclamation (WCC), peanut straw (PS), and wheat straw (WS). The anion equivalent (AE) and cation equivalent (CE) concentrations indicated that the emitted PM2.5 was alkaline for all the 5 combustion sources. Cl possessed high contents among all the 5 burning sources and the highest value occurred at WCC due to the high Cl content in PVC. The WSI profiles were different from each other for the 5 incineration sources on the basis of high coefficients of divergence (CDs). The mass contributions of 9 WSIs in PM2.5 from 5 sources were far lower than those of atmospheric PM2.5. DEHP and DBP dominated in PM2.5 from 4 sources, while WCC possessed high levels of DEHP, DNOP, and DBP. WCC possessed the highest daily intakes of PAEs due to its highest ∑6PAEs of 32000 ng g–1 resulted from the high usage of plasticizers in PVC. The PAE profile similarities were found for both GFPP vs. DG and PS vs. WS based on low CDs. Only 11 phenols were detected for the 5 sources and WCC possessed the highest level of phenols although only phenol was detected. WS had the high levels of phenols due to the using of phenolic pesticides during wheat growth process.


Phenols Phthalates Water soluble ions Combustion source Daily intake

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