Naturally occurring beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb) serve as powerful tracers for atmospheric studies. In this study, 7Be and 210Pb were simultaneously measured in atmospheric aerosols and deposition samples for a whole year (From January to December 2017) in Shenzhen, South China. The activity concentrations of airborne 7Be and 210Pb were in the range of 0.33–9.42 mBq·m−3 and 0.59–4.72 mBq·m−3, with an average of 3.23 and 1.58 mBq·m−3, respectively. Moreover, they were high in winter and low in summer; the 210Pb concentration in aerosols was relatively high probably due to the high soil radon level in this region. The deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb were in the range of 0.25–3.04 Bq·m−2⋅day−1 and 0.34–1.31 Bq·m−2⋅day−1, with an average value of 1.57 and 0.73 Bq·m−2⋅day−1, respectively. The temporal trends of 7Be and 210Pb deposition fluxes were largely influenced by rainfall, the origin and pathway of air masses as well as atmospheric circulation. The average deposition velocity of 7Be and 210Pb calculated using their concentrations in aerosols and deposition fluxes were 0.83 and 0.62 cm·s−1, respectively. The deposition velocity of 7Be and 210Pb correlated well with the amount of rainfall, which indicated that precipitation plays a crucial role in the removal of 7Be and 210Pb from the air. The activity size distribution of these nuclides and the characteristic meteorological condition in this region resulted in the high deposition velocity of 7Be and 210Pb in summer and low in winter.