Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are widely used for fine particle control. The collection surface is sometimes coated with materials to enhance pollutant removal. The use of nonwoven fabric liner inserts for submicrometer particle removal in an ESP was investigated. Two nonwoven fabrics (HAS-10(S)F1SS/PML and HPS-10(S)FIL/F1SS/BSL) were conductive and the third fabric (RR-10(S)F1SS/DSL) was non-conductive. The current-voltage characteristics of the ESP revealed a lower inception voltage for the conductive fabrics (5.0 kV for HAS-10(S)F1SS/PML and 6.1 kV for HPS-10(S)FIL/F1SS/BSL), while a higher inception voltage was obtained without fabric (6.9 kV) and no distinct inception voltage was observed with the non-conductive fabric due to the more reactive electrons and ions on the surfaces of conductive fabrics. The particle capture performance of the ESP was studied with and without nonwoven fabrics using NaCl particles at applied voltages ranging from 0 kV to 7.5 kV. Due to the lower inception voltages and higher ion concentrations of conductive fabrics compared to no fabric and non-conductive fabric, the higher removal efficiencies of particles were obtained at applied voltages lower than 7.5 kV. At 7.5 kV, all cases showed high particle removal efficiencies except particle sizes less than 30 nm and larger than 700 nm due to lower charging with ultrafine particles and re-entrainment of larger particles into the gas stream. Compared to no fabric, better charging with ultrafine particles and inhibition of re-entrainment of particles were observed with fabrics. The findings in this study elucidate the enhanced submicrometer particle control in the ESP by using the conductive fabrics.