Due to biomass burning and coal combustion, heavy fine particulate (PM2.5) pollution frequently occurs in Northeast China, threatening more than 117 million people’s health. Meteorological factors have always been considered as one of the key elements influencing the accumulation and dilution of PM2.5 pollution. However, meteorological contribution to particulate pollution in Northeast China is still of great uncertainty. By using the multiple regression method, we studied the major meteorological factors affecting the accumulation and dilution of PM2.5 pollution based on observational data. We found that wind speed, temperature inversion, and the height of the planetary boundary layer are main factors influencing PM2.5 pollution (PM2.5 > 75 μg/m3) in major cities of Northeast China. Among them, wind speed is the key factor impacting PM2.5 concentration in Harbin and Shenyang. Meanwhile, the height of the planetary boundary layer is the key factor of PM2.5 pollution in Changchun. Heavy pollution (PM2.5>150 μg/m3) in Northeast China usually occurs when the wind speed is under 20 knots, the planetary boundary layer is under 500 m and the temperature difference of the inversion layer is over 6°C. Such results imply that, to deal with PM2.5 pollution, we should focus on not only anthropogenic emissions but also the special meteorological condition which can affect the air pollution mechanism in Northeast China.