Low visibility at the airport causes significant weather delays and reduces the capacity of the airport. To better understand the factors that determine airport visibility, the present study examines the visibility at Incheon Airport, South Korea, and its relationship with meteorological conditions as well as particulate matter (PM) concentrations. Both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are considered for the analyzed period of 2015-2017. The censored regression model reveals that airport visibility is significantly correlated with PM2.5 concentration rather than PM10 concentration and provides capability to quantitatively describe the changes of airport visibility. Specifically, the interactions between PM2.5 concentration and meteorological conditions, such as fog, haze, high temperature, low relative humidity, and weak wind speed, primarily determine visibility degradation. The verification of this regression model for the severe fog event in March 2018 further shows that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations contribute to the visibility impairment by approximately -8.0 km (-3.2 km by PM10 and -4.8 km by PM2.5) in hazy conditions at Incheon Airport. These results indicate that the PM2.5 concentration and interactions of meteorological conditions with PM need to be taken into account when diagnosing and predicting visibility impairment.