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Techniques for Predicting Exposures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Emitted from Cooking Processes for Cooking Workers

Category: Air Pollution Modeling

Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.09.0346

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Chun-Yu Chen1, Yu-Chieh Kuo1, Shih-Min Wang2, Kua-Rong Wu1, Yu-Cheng Chen3, Perng-Jy Tsai 1

  • 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70403, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei 24301, Taiwan
  • 3 National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan


Gaseous-phase PAHs dominate total-PAH concentrations of cooking oil fumes.
No significant difference between near- and far-field PAH exposures.
The well-mixed room model is suitable for PAH exposure predictions.


Cooking oil fumes contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known with chronic human health effects, and hence long-term exposure data is required for determining workers’ exposure profiles and resultant health risks. However, due to both time and cost constraints, previous studies were done on a cross-sectional basis. To date, mathematical models have been widely used for predicting long-term exposures in the industrial hygiene field. The aims of this study were to develop suitable predicting models for establishing long-term exposure data of cooking workers. The whole study was conducted in a test chamber installed with an exhaust hood at 0.7m above the deep-frying pan operated under flow rates 2.64–5.16 m3 min-1. The selected test cooking process involves the use of peanut oil for deep-frying chicken nuggets at 200°C. The IOM inhalable sampler, followed by a XAD-2 tube, was used to collect particle- and gas-phase PAHs, respectively. All collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph (GC) with a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for 21 PAHs. Results showed that total-PAHs emission rates of the gas-phase and particle-phase were 1.45×104 and 2.14×102 ng min-1, respectively. Capture efficiencies of total-PAHs of the exhaust hood were 39.1–76.5%. Resultant fugitive emission rates of the gas-phase and particle-phase were 3.41×103–8.82×103 and 5.03×101–1.30×102 ng min-1, respectively. Considering no significant difference in total-PAHs sampling results between the chef-zone (i.e., near zone) and helper-zone (i.e., far zone), the well-mixed room (WMR) model was adopted for estimating the exposures of all workers. A good correlation (y = 0.134x + 75.3; R2 = 0.860) was found between the above model predicted results (x; 3.25×102–1.57×103 ng min-1) and field sampling results (y; 1.36×102–2.92×102 ng min-1) indicating the plausibility of using proposed approach for establishing a long-term exposure databank for cooking industries in the future


Cooking fumes Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Exposure assessment Model prediction

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