Articles online

Ambient Endotoxin and Chemical Pollutant (PM10, PM2.5, and O3) Levels in South Korea

Category: Urban Air Quality

Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.06.0235

Export Citation:  RIS | BibTeX

Sung Ho Hwang 1, Dong Uk Park2

  • 1 National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi-do 410-769, Korea
  • 2 Department of Environmental Health, Korea National Open University, Seoul 03087, Korea


Airborne endotoxin, particulate matter (PM) 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and O3 levels were measured.
The relationship between these parameters and the factors affecting them were analyzed.
Endotoxin was found to correlate negatively with O3 and temperature.
Endotoxin was found to be higher in the fall and winter as compared to summer


We measured levels of airborne endotoxins in South Korea and compared these to PM10, PM2.5, and O3 levels in ambient environments; environmental factors affecting these levels were also analyzed. A total of 81 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The geometric mean was determined for the levels of endotoxins (0.132 EU m-3), PM10 (51.9 µg m-3), PM2.5 (22.6 µg m-3), and O3 (0.018 ppm). Endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the fall and winter as compared to summer. PM10 and PM2.5 were significantly higher, and O3 was by far the highest, in spring. Negative correlations were found between endotoxin and O3 levels (r = -0.491) and between endotoxin levels and temperature (r = -0.302). PM10 levels were also negatively associated with O3 levels and temperature but positively associated with PM2.5 levels. Given the negative relationship between airborne endotoxins and O3 determined here, further studies at larger sample sizes are needed to identify the mechanisms responsible.


Endotoxins Particulate matter Ozone Ambient conditions Seasons

Related Article

Differential Probability Functions for Investigating Long-term Changes in Local and Regional Air Pollution Sources

Mauro Masiol , Stefania Squizzato, Meng-Dawn Cheng, David Q. Rich, Philip K. Hopke
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.09.0327

Airborne Particulate Pollution Measured in Bangladesh from 2014 to 2017

Ashraf Mahmood, Yongguang Hu , Sabera Nasreen, Philip K. Hopke