Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified as the most crucial precursors of tropospheric photochemical O3 formation and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, field measurement was conducted to develop VOCs emission factors and source profiles of the wood furniture coating industry in China. An activity-based database was established, involving coat consumption-based, coating area-based, furniture production-based, and output value-based VOCs emission factors. Combining the results of field tests and literature surveys, emission factors were calculated by enterprise scale, coating type, spraying technology, and emission control device. The uncertainties were quantified by using Monte Carlo simulations. VOCs emission factors were estimated: 0.22 (0.10–0.34, 95% CI) kg kg–1 for coat consumption-based; 21.97 (10.10–29.38) g m–2 for coating area–based; 0.69 (0.34–1.00) kg piece–1 for furniture production-based; and 6.95 (3.42–10.21) kg 10–4 yuan for output value–based calculation, respectively. Aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were predominant species of solvent borne paint emission, with the proportion of 71.1% and 22.9% of totals, respectively. VOCs emissions from the wood furniture coating industry were estimated at 179.76 × 103 (88.58 × 103–260.52 × 103, 95% CI) t in 2016. Due to the huge production output and intensive distribution of enterprises, VOCs emissions mainly concentrated in Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shandong, Fujian, Jiangxi, and Sichuan province, with the combined contribution of 43.8% of the national totals.