Air pollution poses a very serious problem in developing countries and scarce information is available about the nature of pollutants. This study describes the chemical composition of particulate matter (TSP and PM10), including marker compounds pointing to pollution sources and estimates the contribution of biomass smoke to organic carbon (OC) and particulate matter (PM) at a residential site in Islamabad during winter period in December 2007. Levoglucosan and its relationship with further anhnydrosaccharides were used for estimating of biomass burning contribution while polyols, primary and secondary saccharides were discussed regarding biological aerosol. Polyols and primary saccharides makes small contribution toward total PM10 and TSP mass while anyhrosaccharides contributes more than 90% in both PM10 and TSP. Significant contribution of biomass smoke has been found in Islamabad and it makes 10% of TSP and 18% of the PM10 mass. The analysis of the distributions of saccharide concentrations between the TSP and PM10 fractions shows that anhydrosaccharides i.e., levoglucosan, mannosan and glactosan, all directly related to combustion of biomass are present mainly in PM10. The concentration of TSP varied from 218 µg m–3 to 468 µg m–3 (mean 343 µg m–3) and for PM10 concentrations were in the range of 89–304 µg m–3 (mean 194 µg m–3). A good correlation was observed between PM10, TSP and Ca2+ which implies that mineral / road dust may be major contributor to PM in Islamabad.