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Quantification of Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions from Cookstoves in Senegal

Category: Aerosol and Atmospheric Chemistry

Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.11.0540
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Candela de la Sota 1, Mar Viana2, Moustapha Kane3, Issakha Youm3, Omar Masera4, Julio Lumbreras1

  • 1 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering, Technical University of Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain
  • 2 Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish National Research Council (IDAEA-CSIC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
  • 3 Centre for Studies and Research on Renewable Energy (CERER) of the Cheikh Anta Diop University of Dakar (UCAD), 476 Dakar, Senegal
  • 4 Institute for Ecosystems and Sustainability Research, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, México

Highlights

EC and OC emissions from cookstoves in Senegal are characterised for the first time.
The Rocket stove showed the highest EC EF and EC total emissions.
The gasifier had the smallest total EC and OC emissions.
EC emissions are dependent on the wood species burned.
Differences between laboratory and field results were found, but less than expected.


Abstract

In some regions of the world, cooking with solid biomass fuels in open fires constitutes the largest source of elemental and organic carbon emissions. However, cooking-related carbonaceous aerosols are still poorly characterized. This paper presents an innovative characterization of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC) emissions from cookstoves in West Africa. Four stove types were analysed at laboratory scale (three stones, rocket stove, basic ceramic stove, gasifier), using two wood species (dimb and filao). The EC and OC emission factors based on fuel energy (EFs) when burning dimb were higher for all stoves, highlighting the need to take into account the fuel type when reporting cookstove EFs. The highest EC EF was found with the rocket stove (0.18 ± 0.06 g MJ–1 and 0.06 ± 0.01 g MJ–1 for dimb and filao, respectively). The rest of stoves tested showed the same EC EF, when burning dimb (0.09 ± 0.02 g MJ–1) and EC EF ranging between 0.04 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.01 g MJ–1, when burning filao. The average OC EF was 0.08 ± 0.01 g MJ–1 for the gasifier, followed by three stones (0.18 ± 0.03 g MJ–1) and the basic ceramic stove (0.21 ± 0.08 g MJ–1). Rocket stove and three stones were also tested under real cooking conditions using wood dimb. Results provide evidence that lab-scale tests overestimated EC EFs measured in the field. Also, the rocket stove didn’t show a reduction in wood use with respect to the three stones, implying that carbonaceous aerosol emissions with this stove produce more warming than the traditional stove. Therefore, total stove EC and OC emissions, in addition to EFs, need to be reported. As carbonaceous aerosol impacts are highly dependent on the place where they are emitted, this information can be a very useful input for emission inventories and climate prediction models at national and regional levels.

Keywords

Emission factor Rocket stove Traditional stove West Africa


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