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Source Profiles for PM10-2.5 Resuspended Dust and Vehicle Exhaust Emissions in Central India

Category: Urban Air Quality

Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.08.0259
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Shamsh Pervez 1, Shahina Bano1, John G. Watson2, Judith C. Chow 2, Jeevan Lal Matawle1,3, Anjali Shrivastava5, Suresh Tiwari5, Yasmeen Fatima Pervez6

  • 1 School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492010, Chhattisgarh, India
  • 2 Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA
  • 3 Directorate of Geology and Mining, Chhattisgarh, Regional Laboratory, Jagdalpur 494001, Chhattisgarh, India
  • 4 National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur 440020, Maharashtra, India
  • 5 Indian Institute of Tropical and Meteorology (IITM), New Delhi 110060, India
  • 6 Department of Engineering Chemistry, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Durg 491010, Chhattisgarh, India

Highlights

Crustal element’s abundance in dust while OC and EC dominate in exhaust emissions.
Ca accounted ~30% of construction dust while Fe accounted ~20% in paved road dust.
Diesel vehicular exhaust profiles consisted of 5–7% of EC, with higher Pb, Se, S.
Heavy-duty diesel profile consisted of ~20% EC with abundant Pb, Se, and Zn.


Abstract

Eight composite PM10-2.5 source profiles were developed for resuspended dust and vehicle exhaust emissions with 32 chemical species, including 21 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V, and Zn), 9 water-soluble ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl, F, NO3, and SO42–), and carbonaceous fractions (OC and EC). Dust samples were dominated by crustal elements (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) while exhaust emissions showed high abundances of carbonaceous aerosol (OC and EC). Crustal species (Al, Fe, Mg, and Na) were more enriched over native soils in PM10-2.5 as compared to PM2.5. The higher coefficients of divergence (COD) indicate that profiles differ from each other. Ca accounted for nearly 30% of PM10-2.5 mass in construction dust while Fe accounted for nearly 20% of PM10-2.5 mass in paved road dust. Three- and four-wheeler diesel exhaust profiles consisted of 5–7% EC, with 6–10 times higher Pb, Se, and S abundances than those in two-wheeler gasoline exhaust profile. The heavy-duty diesel exhaust profile consist of nearly 20% EC with abundant (> 0.5%) trace elements (e.g., Pb, Se, and Zn).

Keywords

PM10-2.5 Source profile Enrichment factor Source markers Resuspended dust Vehicle exhaust


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