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Modeling the Long-Range Transport of Particulate Matters for January in East Asia using NAQPMS and CMAQ

Category: Aerosol and Atmospheric Chemistry

Article In Press
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2016.12.0534
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Zhe Wang 1,2, Syuichi Itahashi3, Itsushi Uno1, Xiaole Pan2, Kazuo Osada4, Shigekazu Yamamoto5, Tomoaki Nishizawa6, Kei Tamura7, Zifa Wang2

  • 1 Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan
  • 2 State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
  • 3 Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba 270-1194, Japan
  • 4 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  • 5 Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka 818-0135, Japan
  • 6 National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
  • 7 Nagasaki Prefectural Environmental Affairs Department, Nagasaki 856-0026, Japan


Two models were applied to simulate particulate matters (PM) in Winter in East Asia.
Three types of PM long-range transport (LRT) were identified: N-, S-, and D-type.
N episode indicated the importance of NO3 LRT, which was lack of attentions.
S episode showed the highest SO42– concentrations due to high relative humidity.
Heterogeneous processes on dust were important for NO3 during D episode.


Two regional chemical transport models were applied to simulate high concentrations of particulate matters (PM) observed in East Asia in January 2015; the first model is the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) and the second is the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). The variation of PM2.5 in both models showed well agreement with measurements over both eastern China and western Japan. Based on the model results and the aerosol compositions observed in Fukuoka in western Japan, three types of PM long-range transport (LRT) were identified: N-, S-, and D-type. The N episode showed higher fine-mode nitrate (fNO3) concentrations than fine-mode sulfate (fSO42–), indicating the importance of NO3 LRT. The S episode showed the highest fSO42– concentrations (28.9 µg m–3), which were 3.4-fold higher than fNO3, due to high relative humidity. During the D episode, dust stagnated in Fukuoka for three days, due to the influence of low- and high-pressure systems; thus, dust LRT is also important in winter besides spring. Both models reasonable explained variations in aerosol components during both N and S episodes; however, both underestimated fSO42– especially during D episode, suggesting that they may miss certain emissions or chemical mechanisms. High coarse-mode NO3 (cNO3) concentrations (maximum: 6.3 µg m–3), and high cNO3/fNO3 ratios (maximum: 1.2) were observed during D episode. NAQPMS successfully captured this cNO3 peak after including heterogeneous reactions on dust. Our results emphasize the importance of such heterogeneous processes for understanding the LRT of dust and anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia.


Secondary inorganic aerosol Dust Air quality model Heterogeneous reaction

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