Air pollutants produced in environments have many detrimental impacts on human health. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common worldwide respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between the load of particulate matters and the prevalence of COPD in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran, during 2009–2013. This epidemiological and used-model study was performed in Ahvaz. Particulate matter equal or less than 10 micro meters (PM10) was monitored by Ahvaz Environmental Protection Agency (AEPA). Sampling was performed hourly during the study period in 4 stations. In this study, 175200 (4 × 24 × 365 × 5) samples of air were taken and collected. Sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. We utilized the relative risk values and baseline incidence measures by the WHO (Middle East) drawn from Health Effects Association of Particulate Matter. Finally, prevalence of COPD attributed to particulate matter exposure was calculated by Air Q model. According to our findings, the prevalence of COPD attributed to particulate matters decreased during 2009–2013 and followed a decreasing trend. Accordingly, the yearly prevalence of COPD during the period 2009–2013 were 121, 111, 94, 102, and 98, and the yearly average PM10 concentrations during the same period were 313.72, 281.98, 288.38, 278.12, and 242.29 µg m–3, respectively. Although the average of 5-year study was higher than WHO and NAAQS values, a descending trend for COPD indicates that the level of PM10 was diminished from 2009 to 2013. Therefore mitigating air pollutant particularly PM10 as one of the main hazards could be possibly led to remarkable decrease in the rate of mortality and morbidity particularly COPD attributed to PM10.