The Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) is used to simulate the long-range transport of biomass burning (BB) pollutants from Southeast Asia (SEA) towards the Taiwan Central Mountain Range (CMR) in March and April 2010. The results show that a proportion of the BB plume was blocked and compressed at the windward side of CMR. High-altitude BB plume is shown to influence air quality on the ground via three mechanisms: (1) the subsidence in the anticyclone, (2) the downward motion in the cold surge, and (3) the vertical mixing of the boundary layer over land. Two case studies are further investigated to probe the chemical evolution of the air parcel approaching Mt. Lulin. The first case shows that the third mechanism also explained the increase in the concentrations of peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN), higher peroxyacyl nitrate (PANX), NH3, SO2, and volatile organic compounds in the BB plume when entering the land over western Taiwan. Meanwhile, the percentage of NO3– in the plume is also significantly increased. The second case reveals that valley wind transported air pollutants from the ground to the mountains. The air parcel, accompanied with considerable concentrations of PAN, PANX, SULF, and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol, moved up Mt. Lulin. The pollutant concentrations, except for elemental carbon, in the air parcel decreased on approach to Mt. Lulin because the air parcel was mixed with a clean air.