The aerosol properties retrieved from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measurements during the period 2009 to 2012 over Jaipur (26.9°N, 75.8°E, 450m asl) in Northwestern India are used for the first time to identify the types of aerosols. In order to consider the appropriate threshold of aerosol optical thickness (τ) at 500 nm (τ500) and Angstrom exponent (α) in the spectral band 440–870 nm, a novel approach has been conducted and applied for the identification process. Five prevailing aerosol classes are identiﬁed: desert dust, biomass, maritime, arid background and mixed aerosols. Arid background and desert dust type aerosols are the most common at Jaipur (34.7% and 13.6%, respectively), with a wide variability in both τ and α. In about 8.4% of the cases, aerosols can be classiﬁed as maritime, although mixing with other aerosols (33.6%) is substantial. The ground-based spectral optical thickness and the refractive index estimated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths are used to account for the type of atmospheric aerosols. They are compared with four more AERONET sites located in India based upon their geographical distribution and extensive data availability. Simultaneously, single scattering albedo of dust is also inferred for all the available AERONET sites for the same period over India. The comparison results suggest that Jaipur arid background is more scattering in nature than Northern and Western regions in India. Finally, the absorption is less in summer than in winter over the Jaipur site.