This study introduces the Southern Particulate Matter Supersite in Taiwan, which began operating on April 1, 2005. The supersite has one core station and three satellite stations for monitoring the properties of particulate matter (PM) and emission sources in southern Taiwan. High-time resolution (1–30 minutes) data for physical and chemical properties of ambient PM are acquired continuously. Measurement data are as follows: (1) PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 10 μm) mass concentrations; (2) PM2.5 compositions of sulfate, nitrate and carbon; (3) particle light scattering and absorption; (4) particle number concentrations in various size fractions between 10 nm and 20 μm; (5) related precursor gases such as NOy, H2O2, and NH3; and, (6) meteorological variables. Most measurements are unique to the study area and can be used to elucidate the causes of PM pollution and evaluate PM exposure and adverse health effects. In addition to describing the sampling location, measurements and data archiving, future challenges for the supersite are discussed as well.