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Influence of Meteorological Variables on Suburban Atmospheric PM2.5 in the Southern Region of Peninsular Malaysia

Category: Aerosol and Atmospheric Chemistry

Volume: 20 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 14-25
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.06.0313
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To cite this article:
Dahari, N., Latif, M.T., Muda, K. and Hussein, N. (2020). Influence of Meteorological Variables on Suburban Atmospheric PM2.5 in the Southern Region of Peninsular Malaysia. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 20: 14-25. doi: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.06.0313.

Nadhira Dahari1, Mohd Talib Latif2, Khalida Muda 1, Norelyza Hussein1

  • 1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • 2 School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


  • The highest value of the daily PM2.5 mass in the suburban area is 44.6 µg m–3.
  • The PM2.5 mass is 0.53–0.90 the level of the PM10 mass concentration.
  • 43.33% of the daily PM2.5 mass value exceeded the 24 h WHO Guideline.
  • The PM2.5 is negatively correlated to wind speed and relative humidity.


Air pollution is a crucial contributor to premature mortality and health problems. The excessive inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is strongly associated with adverse health effects due to its capability to penetrate deep into the human respiratory system. This study aimed to analyze the seasonal cycles of 24 h average PM2.5 mass concentrations in a suburban area in the southern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The meteorological variables and PM2.5 data were obtained via a Grimm Environmental Dust Monitor from August 2017 until January 2018. The maximum 24 h mass concentration was 44.6 µg m–3, with a mean value of 21.85 µg m–3, which was observed during the southwest monsoon . 43.33% and 8.33% of the daily concentrations exceeded the 24 h World Health Organization Guideline and Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Standard, respectively. The variation in the PM2.5 mass ranged between 0.53 and 0.90 times of the PM10 mass, indicating that the PM2.5 consistently contributed 52–92% of the PM10 mass concentration. During the monsoon seasons, the ambient temperature exhibited a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) with the PM2.5 mass concentration (r = 0.425–0.541), whereas the wind speed (r = –0.23 to –0.0127) and the relative humidity (r = –0.472 to –0.271) displayed strong negative correlations with it. Additionally, the rainfall was weakly correlated with the mass concentration. The presence of northeasterly wind at the study site suggests that the PM2.5 originated from sources to the northeast, which are influenced by anthropogenic activities and high traffic.


Atmospheric PM2.5 Meteorological influence Particulate matter Suburban area

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