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Emission Factors of NOx, SO2, and PM for Bathing, Heating, Power Generation, Coking, and Cement Industries in Shanxi, China: Based on Field Measurement

Category: Air Toxics

Volume: 18 | Issue: 12 | Pages: 3115-3127
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.08.0282
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Zhiyong Li 1,2, Yao Hu2, Lan Chen1,2, Lei Wang3, Dong Fu 1,2, Huiqiao Ma2, Lin Fan2, Caixiu An3, Aiqin Liu3

  • 1 MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Ministry of Education, Beijing 102206, China
  • 2 School of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 07100, China
  • 3 Hebei Research Center for Geoanalysis, Baoding 071003, China

Highlights

Emission factors (EFs) for differently scaled boilers were investigated.
EFs were expressed by four types.
Coal, gangue and gas-fired power plants were investigated for EFs.
Heating, power generation, coke making and cement production industries were studied.


Abstract

Despite rapid development in China, small-scale boilers (SCBs) still occupy a prominent place in industry. Due to the lack of pollutant removal devices (RDs), SCBs emit large quantities of pollutants, which merit increased attention. In this study, various SCBs (operating on coal, gangue, coke oven gas, coal gas, and natural gas) used in bathing, heating, power generation, and coke and cement making were investigated for their SO2, NOx, and PM emission factors (EFs). The EFs were expressed as the emitted pollutant mass associated with fuel consumption (EFI), product yield (EFII), industrial output (EFIII), and power generation (EFIV). Of 17 civil SCBs, 4, 14, and 10 were not equipped with PM, NOx, and SO2 RDs, respectively. Generally, the EFI values for all of the SCBs decreased with increasing coal consumption. The averaged NOx EFI value for the 3 SCBs with installed NOx RDs was 2.00 kg t–1 versus 3.16 kg t–1 for the 17 SCBs. The sulfur content of the coal and the SO2 removal rate were highly influential factors for the SO2 EFI values. The 4 SCBs without PM RDs possessed an average EFI value of 23.9 kg t–1, which was higher than the corresponding 5.41 kg t–1 for the 13 boilers equipped with PM RDs. The EFI, EFII, and EFIV values for 9 coal-fired power plants (PPs) exhibited the same trends, decreasing as the capacity of the PPs increased from 6 to 330 MW, although slightly higher EFs were found for 600 MW plants compared to 330 MW plants. The gas-fired PPs possessed higher NOx EFs than both the coal- and gangue-fired plants, and the gangue-fired PPs displayed significantly higher EFs than coal-fired PPs with the same individual block power capacity. Because flue gas produced in the coking factories was not fully emitted during the combustion process, no correlation existed between the EFs (expressed as EFII and EFIII) and coke production or industrial output. Moreover, due to the lack of NOx RDs, the EFs of NOx were higher than those of SO2 and PM in the coking industry. Among 6 small- and medium-sized cement companies, the factories with lower cement production possessed higher EFI values for PM. A reverse trend was exhibited by the NOx EFI, however, with high combustion temperatures at factories with high production being the possible explanation.

Keywords

Emission factor SO2 NOx Bathing Coke making Power plant Cement making


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