Black carbon (BC) aerosol in urban environments potentially affects the local environment, the regional climate cycle, and even human health. A two-year field measurement (May 2014 to July 2016) of BC and particulate matter in Xuzhou, a large industrial city and the economic center of Huaihai Economic Zone in central China, was conducted. The average annual concentrations of BC, PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 2.44 µg m–3, 56.6 µg m–3, 61.8 µg m–3, and 75.8 µg m–3, respectively. The highest daily average for the BC concentrations was 11.6 µg m–3, and more than 10% of the hourly BC measurements had concentrations above 5 µg m–3. All of the BC and PM concentrations displayed two diurnal peaks (during rush hours in the morning and in the evening) and one valley (in the afternoon). The overall BC concentrations, and the BC fractions in the PM were higher in winter and spring, whereas the overall PM concentrations were higher in winter and autumn. The backward trajectory analysis indicated that most of the high BC concentrations in Xuzhou were associated with north and northwest winds, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model proved that the provinces of central China were the most likely source regions. Our findings can be used to set appropriate atmospheric pollution control measures for these central provinces and to increase the accuracy of air quality forecasting.