Sun photometer measurements at urban Jiaozuo in Central China from July 2016 to February 2018 were used to investigate the aerosol optical and microphysical properties, including the climatological variation of aerosol properties, aerosol classification and properties under haze and dust events. The annual mean aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD440 nm) and the Ångström exponent (AE440-870 nm) were 0.84 ± 0.55 and 1.12 ± 0.17, respectively. The highest AOD being in summer may be associated with the hygroscopic growth of aerosols under enhanced relative humidity. Accordingly, high volume of fine-mode particles was observed in summer. In addition, the carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning increased the volume of fine particles in June and September. Whereas the coarse-mode particles (mainly dust) dominated during spring, especially in May with a maximum volume of 0.16 µm3 µm–2. The seasonal mean single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA440 nm) was lower in spring (0.87 ± 0.05) and higher in summer (0.95 ± 0.04). On the contrary, absorption aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AAOD440 nm) was higher during spring (0.079 ± 0.019) and lower during summer (0.045 ± 0.021). The increased absorptivity of aerosols in spring and strong scattering ability in summer may be associated with aerosol particles from different sources. The predominant aerosol type was absorbing aerosols (fine and mixed) according to the classification technique using fine mode fraction (FMF), SSA and AE. This urban site was not only influenced by anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and the surrounding regions but also affected by dust from northwestern China. The mean AOD and AE were 1.66 and 1.38 on haze days, while slightly low AOD of 0.95 and extremely low AE of 0.18 on dust days. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of aerosol properties in this area, and the results will help to optimize the satellite aerosol inversion algorithm and promote regional climate change research.