OPEN ACCESS

Articles online

Characteristics of Indoor and Outdoor Fine Phthalates during Different Seasons and Haze Periods in Beijing

Category: Air Pollution and Health Effects

Volume: 19 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 364-374
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2018.03.0114
PDF

Export Citation:  RIS | BibTeX

Yu Wang, Ding Ding, Mushui Shu, Zhiyong Wei, Tong Wang, Qi Zhang, Xiaohui Ji, Pengyao Zhou, Mo Dan

  • Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection, Beijing 100054, China

Highlights

The indoor phthalate concentration was generally higher than that outdoors.
Much higher concentrations of fine phthalates were found during the haze days.
As age increased, the risk of DEHP carcinogenesis gradually declined.
DEHP inhalation and skin exposure were highest in 1–2-year-old children.


Abstract

We studied the concentrations, seasonal distributions, sources, exposures, and health risks of phthalates in indoor and outdoor PM2.5 in Beijing. The results showed that phthalate concentrations during haze periods were significantly higher than during non-haze periods both indoors and outdoors, with higher concentrations for the former, which reached a maximum of 1995.56 ng m–3. Phthalates are mainly derived from the use of indoor plasticized products, the outdoor plastic products industry, and other sources of fuel emissions. Lifelong exposure to fine (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) through inhalation and dermal absorption was calculated, and the results indicated a risk of cancer, with DEHP carcinogenic risk levels of 4.09 × 10–6 and 10.50 × 10–6 for adults and children, respectively. The highest DEHP carcinogenic risk group was 1–2-year-old children, and the risk decreased afterward with age.

Keywords

PM2.5 Indoor air Exposure


Related Article

Citizen’s Surveillance Micro-network for the Mapping of PM2.5 in the City of Concón, Chile

Ernesto Gramsch , Luis Morales, Marcelo Baeza, Cristian Ayala, Cristian Soto, José Neira, Patricio Pérez, Francisco Moreno
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.04.0179
PDF

Source Identification on High PM2.5 Days Using SEM/EDS, XRF, Raman, and Windblown Dust Modeling

Jeff Wagner , Zhong-Min Wang, Sutapa Ghosal, Stephen Wall
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2019.05.0276
PDF

Analysis of PAHs Associated with PM10 and PM2.5 from Different Districts in Nanjing

Xiansheng Liu, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Brigitte Schloter-Hai, Lili Ma , Pengfei Tai, Xin Cao, Cencen Yu, Thomas Adam, Ralf Zimmermann
;