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Reduction of Atmospheric PM2.5 Level by Restricting the Idling Operation of Buses in a Busy Station

Category: Urban Air Quality

Volume: 17 | Issue: 10 | Pages: 2424-2437
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.09.0301
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Yen-Yi Lee1, Sheng-Lun Lin 2,3, Ria Aniza1, Chung-Shin Yuan4

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan
  • 3 Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan
  • 4 Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung City 80424, Taiwan


The effect of idling restriction of buses on local PM2.5 level is evaluated.
PM2.5 levels at exposure site in bust station is 7% higher than the background.
Idling prohibition reduces PM2.5, ionic component, and non-natural metals.
CMB model indicates the reduction of mobile contribution by idling restriction.
Secondary aerosol could not be effectively inhibited by reduce primary emission.


Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is found as a harmful object if inhaled by people which is caused enormous health problem. It is found as high level in public facility of bus station where a lot of passengers and workers might expose to PM2.5 emission from idling diesel engine (buses). This research evaluated the restriction of idling vehicle as a control strategy of PM2.5 level in bus station by measuring the level of PM2.5 and chemical properties in both upwind and exposure sites for comparable data. The sampling work took place in weekend/weekday and before/after vehicle-idling-restriction applied. Originally, the exposure site showed 7% higher PM2.5 level, non-neutralized nitrate content, anthropogenic metal elements, and higher mobile source contribution evaluated by chemical mass balance (CMB8.2) model. After the prohibition of idling operation of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, the PM2.5 mass concentrations at exposure site were reduced close to the upwind site. Additionally, the nitrate content was reduced from background. Moreover, the contributions of several anthropogenic metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, and Ti) in PM2.5 were reduced, when the crustal element (Na, Mg, Al, K, and Ca) were much increased after restriction. Finally, the mobile contribution was also decreased to only 33.7–34.5%. Consequently, these finding verified the prohibition policy of idling vehicle is going well as a control strategy to manage the PM2.5 emission and local hotspot in public facility (bus station).


PM2.5 Idling operation Source apportionment Chemical composition CMB model

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