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Size Distribution of Inorganic Elements in Bottom Ashes from Seven Types of Bio-Fuels across Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China

Category: Air Toxics

Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.08.0296
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Zhiyong Li 1, Huiqiao Ma1, Fan Lin1, Peng Zhao1, Lei Wang2, Yunjun Jiang2, Caixiu An2, Aiqin Liu2, Zishu Hu3, Hui Jin4

  • 1 School of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071000, China
  • 2 Central Laboratory of Geology and Mineral Resources of Hebei Province, Baoding 071003, China
  • 3 Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Xinjiang Electric Power Company, Urumqi 830000, China
  • 4 M&T Center of EHV Power Transmission Company of CSG, Guangzhou 510663, China


Analyzed 39 elements in bottom ashes (BAs) for 7 bio-fuels (BFs).
Heavy metal (HM) profiles for different sized BAs within any BFs were similar.
The contents of trace elements were well correlated with particle sizes of BAs.
V in BAs for corn straws were higher than limits used as soil conditioner.
HM profiles for partial BFs were different.


A total of fifty-six bottom ash (BA) samples from indoor burning of seven bio-fuels (BFs) using Zaotai stove were collected from eight sampling sites across Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from April to December, 2016. Each one was divided into six parts as PM+148, PM93–148, PM67–93, PM53–67, PM40–53 and PM–40 using vibrating screen. The lower sized three parts including PM53–67, PM40–53 and PM–40 were selected for analysis of 39 inorganic elements (IEs) using ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The firewood–walnut (WAL) had the lowest ash yield as 34.3 ± 3.55 g kg–1, the corresponding values for 6 crop straws were millet (MIL) > sorghum (SOR) > sesame (SES) > corn (COR) > cotton (COT) > soybean (SOY). The ash yields were generally positive correlated the particle sizes of BAs for seven BFs. The eight top elements (TEs) including Si, Ca, Mg, K, P, Al, Na and Ti dominated in all BAs regard less of their fluctuation among seven BFs and Ʃ8TEs were well correlated with Ʃ39IEs (R2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). The Ʃ39IEs were not correlated with particle size of BAs due to significantly fluctuation of 8 TEs. The trace elements including Sc, Li, P, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Sb, As, Y, Cs, Bi, Tl, Th, Sn, Cd, La, Ce, Sm, W and U were well negative correlated with particle size of BAs from 7 BFs, while the 8 TEs with higher content except for Al showed not this trend. The heavy metal (HM) profiles were similar between any two sized BAs for all the seven BFs based on lower values of coefficient of divergence (CD). The 6 pairs of BFs out of 21 pairs of BFs were different in HM profiles based on higher CD values. The HMs including Zn, Cu, Pb, V, Cr and Ni had the higher levels among seven BFs. The contents of V in BAs from COR were beyond the limits designated by European countries for BAs used as soil conditioner. The enrichment factors (EFs) of 12 HMs were not correlated particle sizes of BAs, resulted from the fluctuation of Al used as reference element among different sized BAs. The HMs as Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn had higher EFs more than 10 indicated they were significantly influenced by human activities.


Bio-fuel Bottom ash Heavy metal Inorganic element Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei

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