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Characteristics of Respirable Particulate Metals Emitted by a Beehive Firework Display in YanShuei Area of Southern Taiwan

Category: Air Pollution and Health Effects

Volume: 16 | Issue: 9 | Pages: 2227-2236
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2016.08.0346

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Chih-Chung Lin1, Jen-Hsiung Tsai1, Kuo-Lin Huang1, C. Kuei-Jyum Yeh1, Hsiu-Lin Chen 2, Shui-Jen Chen 1, Jia-Twu Lee1, Yi-Chin Hsieh1

  • 1 Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Nei-Pu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Hung Kuang University, Taichung 43302, Taiwan


Short-term exposure to firework sources causing adverse health effects.
Trace metals of firework aerosols are Al, Ba, Cu, K, Mg, Pb, and Sr.
The D/B values of Ba, Sr, and Cu in PM2.5 are 1828, 534 and 473, respectively.
The major peaks of the metal are in fine particles during the firework display.


This study investigates metals in the PM1.0 and PM2.5 collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) sampler in the YanShuei area of southern Taiwan during a beehive firework display. The results of sample analyses indicate that during the beehive firework display, the ratios of metal concentrations in PM2.5 (D) to the background level (B) at leeward sampling site were 1,828 for Ba, 702 for K, 534 for Sr, 473 for Cu, 104 for Mg, 121 for Al, and 98 for Pb. The corresponding data for PM1.0 were 3036, 838, 550, 676, 594, 190, and 126, respectively. According to the results of metal composition ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and upper continental crust (UCC) analyses, the concentrations of particle-bound Al, Ba, Cu, K, Mg, Pb, and Sr increased during the beehive firework displays, suggesting that firework-display aerosols contained abundant metal elements of Al, Ba, Cu, K, Mg, Pb, and Sr. Before (background), trial, during, and after the beehive firework display, the Ba, K, Cu, Mg, Pb, and Sr (commonly regarded as firework display indicator elements) accounted for 0.520, 2.45, 26.4 and 0.849% mass of PM1, respectively, while for PM2.5 the corresponding data were 0.777, 2.32, 23.8, and 0.776%, respectively.


Beehive fireworks display PM1 PM2.5 Metals Short-term pollution

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