Workers in the semiconductor fabrication process may be exposed to higher levels of hazardous materials, such as arsenic, during preventive maintenance (PM) tasks than during the regular operation of the fabrication process. This study investigates the exposure to arsenic and other metals during PM tasks in the ion implantation process. Airborne arsenic samples and bulk samples were obtained during various ion implanter PM tasks in a semiconductor fabrication factory. The arithmetic mean (AM) and standard deviation (SD) of airborne arsenic in personal samples were 0.64 µg m–3 ± 0.92 µg m–3 (n = 9), and the highest level was 2.39 µg m–3 during medium-current ion implanter PM tasks. For area samples, the AM and SD were 0.42 µg m–3 ± 0.69 µg m–3 (n = 5) and the highest level was 1.79 µg m–3 during medium-current ion implanter PM tasks. Arsenic was also found in the bulk samples of debris produced during PM tasks. Other metals (Ag, Al, Cu, Pb, Cr, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and W) were found, but at low levels, prompting few health concerns compared with those of arsenic. This study found that PM workers were exposed to airborne arsenic levels that differed significantly according to the type of ion implanter used.