The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is one of the most polluted areas in China, especially in terms of particulate matter pollution. To describe the aerosol distribution of such an area, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) with a 1 km spatial resolution was retrieved from MODIS data based on a new high-resolution aerosol retrieval algorithm with a priori land surface reflectance (LSR) database support (HARLS). Continuous AOD data from 2013 and 2014 retrieved by this algorithm were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the AOD in the above area. The AOD in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has obvious regional and seasonal variations. The AOD in the south and east is higher than in the north and west, and the AOD in spring and summer is higher than that in winter and autumn.