Articles online

Personal Exposure and Dose of Inhaled Ambient Particulate Matter Bound Metals in Five European Cities

Category: Air Pollution and Health Effects

Volume: 16 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 1452-1463
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2015.09.0536
PDF | RIS | BibTeX

Eleni Mammi-Galani, Eleftheria Chalvatzaki, Mihalis Lazaridis

  • Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100 Chania, Crete, Greece


Quantification of internal dose of particulate matter-bound metals.
A respiratory tract model and a pharmacokinetic model were used.
The study focus on residents of five European cities.


The objective of the current study is the determination of the personal exposure and dose of ambient particulate matter-bound metals in human tissues at five European cities. The accumulation in human body of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), in five European cities (Athens, Seville, Rome, Frankfurt and Zabrze) was calculated using an exposure and dose assessment model, ExDoM, and a pharmacokinetic model, PBPK. The study subjects are adult Caucasian non-smoker males. It was calculated that the highest dose of particulate matter is received from a resident of Seville, due to the higher ambient PM10 levels in the city compared to the other sites. First, the current study showed that the European Union thresholds of particle-bound Pb, Cd and As concentrations were not exceeded in the cities under study. As regard the dose of Pb and As the higher dose is calculated for Athens and Seville, respectively. The highest dose of Cd is found at Zabrze, due to the high industrial activity in the city. It was calculated that after one day of exposure, the highest accumulation of Pb occurred in blood, muscles and bones. Furthermore, the highest deposition of Cd occurred in the lungs and intestines and for As in the lung and muscles. The heavy metals intake, calculated in this study, was very low in comparison with the recommended WHO levels for heavy metals intake from all types of exposure (inhalation, ingestion).


Human exposure Human metal dose Exposure modelling PBPK model Respiratory tract model

Related Article

Intra-Urban Levels, Spatial Variability, Possible Sources and Health Risks of PM2.5 Bound Phthalate Esters in Xi’an

Jingzhi Wang, Zhibao Dong, Xiaoping Li, Meiling Gao, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Gehui Wang, Shun Xiao, Junji Cao

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Short-Term Health Impacts of PM2.5 in Iranian Cities; a Modelling Approach (2013-2016)

Philip K. Hopke, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Mostafa Hadei, Maryam Yarahmadi, Majid Kermani, Elham Yarahmadi, Abbas Shahsavani

Airborne Particulate Matter: An Investigation of Buildings with Passive House Technology in Hungary

Krisztina Szirtesi , Anikó Angyal, Zoltán Szoboszlai, Enikő Furu, Zsófia Török, Titusz Igaz, Zsófia Kertész
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.05.0158

Impact of Dust Storms on NPAHs and OPAHs in PM2.5 in Jinan, China, in Spring 2016: Concentrations, Health Risks, and Sources

Pan Jiang, Lingxiao Yang , Xiangfeng Chen, Ying Gao, Yanyan Li, Junmei Zhang, Tong Zhao, Hao Yu, Wenxing Wang
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.08.0274