In recent years, the development of alternative energies has attracted much interest owing to the depletion of crude oil reserves and increasing oil prices. Many efforts have been made to use biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. This study examines the particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon (EC and OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are emitted from a generator using biodieselhols, which comprise 10–50 vol% pure (or dehydrated) butanol (denoted as B) or 10–40 vol% water-containing butanol (2% and 5% water content, denoted as B' and B'', respectively), 20 vol% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (WEO-biodiesel, denoted as W20), and 30–80 vol% conventional diesel. The experimental results reveal that water-containing and -free butanol-added WEO-biodiesel yielded 21.7–56.3% less PM, 28.7–63.8% less PM-EC, 11.8–48.7% less PM-OC, 23.5–59.2% less total-PAHs, and 37.0–55.3% less total-BaPeq than fossil diesel (D100). The greatest reductions were achieved using the blended fuels with 30% added butanol (W20B30, W20B'30, and W20P2B''30). The use of 5% water-containing butanol reduced total-PAHs emission more than did the use of 2% water-containing butanol.