The goal of this study was to analyse the combustion characteristics and emissions of Jatropha curcas biodiesel (JCB) when run in a diesel engine. Jatropha curcas oil was used to produce Jatropha curcas biodiesel (JCB) through a transesterification process. The major fuel properties of JCB, including the acid value, kinematic viscosity, flash point, gross heating value, and iodine value, were determined and compared with that of soybean biodiesel (SBM), sunflower seed biodiesel (SFM), mackerel fish oil biodiesel (MB), and premium diesel (D). JCB had a higher density, acid value, kinematic viscosity, iodine value and flash point, but a lower gross heating value, than D. JCB was then used to analyze combustion characteristics, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, SO2, and particulate matter (PM), under varied engine speeds and varied engine loads. The experimental results show CO2 concentration increased with increasing engine loads for all fuels. Engine trials on D exhibited better combustion efficiency at lower engine loads (0 kW–4 kW) but engine trials on JCB exhibited better combustion efficiency for higher engine loads (5 kW– 8 kW). JCB emitted more NO and NOx on a loaded engine. Engine trials on JCB emitted higher PM concentration when the engine was not loaded, while engine trials on MB produced higher PM concentration when the engine was loaded. The estimated CO2 emissions for JCB, MB, and D are 9221.3, 9617.2, and 10185.0 g (gal fuel)–1, respectively.