OPEN ACCESS

Articles online

Characteristics of Respirable Elemental Carbon (EC) Exposures of Household Waste Collectors

Category: Urban Air Quality

Volume: 16 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 1000-1009
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2015.06.0414
PDF | RIS | BibTeX

Kyong-Hui Lee1, Hye-Jung Jung2, Jung-Ah Shin3, Hyun-Seok Kwak3, Gwang-Yong Yi4, Seung-Hun Ryu5, Kyeong-Min Lee3, Kwon-Chul Ha6, Dong-Uk Park 7

  • 1 Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
  • 2 Health Promotion Center, Catholic Kwandong University, International St. Mary’s Hospital, Incheon, Korea
  • 3 Occupational Lung Disease Institute, Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Service, Incheon, Korea
  • 4 Occupational Safety & Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan, Korea
  • 5 School of Public Health, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
  • 6 Department of Health Science and Biochemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon, Korea
  • 7 Department of Environmental Health, Korea National Open University, Seoul, Korea

Highlights

Relatively low exposure to elemental carbon (EC) of household waste collectors (HWC).
HWC exposed to high organic carbon/EC ratios.
EC can be used as a surrogate for diesel engine exhaust emissions.


Abstract

The objectives of this study to characterize exposure to respirable elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and total carbon (TC) in relation to waste-handling activities and vehicle characteristics among workers who collect household wastes, and to examine the relationships among EC, OC and TC. A total of 72 household waste collectors were selected for exposure assessment over a full workday and most (70 of 72) exposures were collected from diesel emissions that underwent catalytic after-treatment by diesel particulate filters (DPFs). The exposure assessments were conducted from June through September 2014. Airborne EC and OC from the breathing zone were collected on pre-fired quartz filters and quantified using the thermal optical reflectance method. The average EC exposure level of the household waste collectors was 7.2 µg m–3 with a range of 2.0-30.4 µg m–3. A significant relationship between EC and TC exposure levels was observed (logTC = 0.38 × logEC + 3.22, p < 0.0001, adjusted R2 = 0.23). EC level (µg m–3), truck age (< 10 year-old vs. ≥ 10 year-old), type of waste collection job (collector vs. driver), current smoking status (yes vs. no) and month were found to significantly influence the level of TC exposure (n = 70, adjusted R2 = 0.56, p < 0.0001). The average exposure to EC of household waste collectors can be categorized into the relatively low exposure group when compared to other DE exposure jobs. TC was not a best surrogate for DE exposure in household waste collection environments because it was affected by other OC interferences that were not generated from diesel engines.

Keywords

House waste collector Carbon exposure Elemental carbon Organic carbon Respirable carbon


Related Article

Vertical Ozone Concentration Profiles in the Arabian Gulf Region during Summer and Winter: Sensitivity of WRF-Chem to Planetary Boundary Layer Schemes

Christos Fountoukis , Mohammed A. Ayoub, Luis Ackermann, Daniel Perez-Astudillo, Dunia Bachour, Ivan Gladich, Ross D. Hoehn

On the Morphology and Composition of Particulate Matter in an Urban Environment

Bahadar Bahadar Zeb, Khan Khan Alam , Armin Armin Sorooshian, Thomas Blaschke, Ifthikhar Ahmad, Imran Shahid
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.09.0340
PDF

Concentration of Ultrafine Particles near Roadways in An Urban Area in Chicago, Illinois

Sheng Xiang, Zhice Hu, Wenjuan Zhai, Dongqi Wen, Kenneth E. Noll
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.09.0347
PDF

Spatial Characterization of Black Carbon Mass Concentration in the Atmosphere of a Southeast Asian Megacity: An Air Quality Case Study for Metro Manila, Philippines

Honey Dawn Alas , Thomas Müller, Wolfram Birmili, Simonas Kecorius, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, James Bernard B. Simpas, Mylene Cayetano, Kay Weinhold, Edgar Vallar, Maria Cecilia Galvez, Alfred Wiedensohler
;