Indoor/outdoor aerosol size distribution was measured in four European cities (Oslo–Norway, Prague–Czech Republic, Milan–Italy and Athens–Greece) during 2002 in order to examine the differences in the characteristics of the indoor/outdoor modal structure and to evaluate the effect of indoor sources to the aerosol size distributions. All the measurement sites were naturally ventilated and were occupied during the campaigns by permanent residents or for certain time periods by the technical staff responsible for the instrumentation. Outdoor particle number (PN) concentrations presented the higher values in Milan and Athens (median values 1.4 × 104 # cm–3 and 2.9 × 104 # cm–3 respectively) as a result of elevated outdoor emissions and led to correspondingly higher indoor values compared to Oslo and Prague. In absence of indoor activities, the indoor concentrations followed the fluctuations of the outdoor concentrations in all the measurement sites. Indoor activities (cooking, smoking, etc.) resulted in elevated indoor PN concentrations (maximum values ranging between 1.7 × 105 # cm–3 and 3.2 × 105 # cm–3) and to I/O ratios higher than one. The I/O ratios were size dependant and for periods without indoor activities, they presented the lowest values for particles < 50 nm (0.51 ± 0.15) and the ratios increased with fine particle size (0.79 ± 0.12 for particles between 100–200 nm). The analysis of the modal structure showed that the indoor aerosol size distribution characteristics differ from the outdoors under the effect of indoor sources. The percentage of unimodal size distributions increased during indoor emissions, compared to periods without indoor sources, along with the number concentration of Aitken mode particles, indicating emissions in specific size ranges according to the type of the indoor source.