Open biomass burning is a significant source of trace gases and particulate pollutants on a global scale and plays an important role in both atmospheric chemistry and climate change. To study the emission characteristics of biomass burning, with a focus on crop residue combustion in Northwest China, a combustion chamber was established. This paper describes the design, structure, and operating principles of the chamber. A series of evaluation tests were conducted, demonstrating its applicability in emission studies. The combustion chamber was equipped with a thermoanemometer and a dilution sampler as well as multiple sampling ports for interfacing with different monitors. A case study of wheat straw combustion was performed to demonstrate reproducibility and comparability of the derived emission factors with prior studies. The combustion chamber may be applied to develop emission factors to update emission inventories and source profiles for improving source apportionment.