This study focuses on the test performance discrepancies for filter cartridges resulting from different kinds of test dust. A comprehensive experimental set-up including pulse-jet cleaning system for cleanable pleated filter cartridges was developed. Then, three identical cartridge samples were tested in this experimental set-up using different synthetic test dust, i.e., 325 mesh talcum powder, ASHRAE dust and ISO A2 dust respectively. Results showed that the type of test dust had significant impacts on dust holding capacity and cleaning effectiveness of pulse-jet cleaned cartridges. Cartridge sample loaded with ASHRAE dust has the smallest dust holding capacity and the worst cleaning effectiveness. However, considering its short experimental period, size distribution and actual simulation effects of atmospheric aerosol, ASHRAE dust is still recommended.