Seasonal variations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), Ångström exponent (α), single scattering albedo (SSA), water vapor content (WVC), aerosol size distribution and refractive index at Mount Song, a rural site in Central China are analyzed using ground-based sunphotometer data for the period April 2012 to May 2014 for the first time. The results show that the area is highly polluted even the major anthropogenic emission sources are far away. Seasonal mean AOD is high (0.72 ± 0.52) during summer (June–August) season and low (0.51 ± 0.38) during autumn (September–November) season. The monthly mean α is very low (0.81 ± 0.30) in the month of April and very high (1.32 ± 0.23) in the month of September with annual average value 1.1. Analysis of the frequency distributions of AOD and α in each season indicates presence of fine-mode particles. Strong seasonal variations in SSA is likely due to local biomass burning and regional transport of anthropogenic aerosol particles, Seasonal mean SSA at 440 nm wavelength are 0.89 ± 0.04, 0.91 ± 0.06, 0.89 ± 0.07 and 0.92 ± 0.05, respectively during spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons. It is also shown that the scattering capacity of the fine-mode particles is relatively higher during summer compared to other seasons. The aerosol volume size distributions show pronounced seasonal variations in volume concentration, peak radius and the fine-mode particles are evidently dominant during summer season due to the hygroscopic growth. A distinct seasonal variations in aerosol parameters confirm the transport of polluted air mass at Mount Song.