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Atmospheric Emission of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans from Converter Steelmaking Processes

Category: Technical Note

Volume: 15 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 1118-1124
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2014.10.0264
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Sumei Li, Wenbin Liu, Guorui Liu, Mei Wang, Changliang Li, Minghui Zheng

  • State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China


Converter steelmaking processes are identified as the sources of PBDD/Fs.

PBDD/F pattern from converter steelmaking are characterized.

Emission factors of PBDD/Fs from converter steelmaking are derived.


Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were characterized and quantified in stack gas from secondary ventilation systems from five different steelmaking plants. The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs (2,3,7,8-PBDD/Fs) and PBDEs were 0.036–0.19 ng/Nm3 (0.32–4.33 pg toxic equivalency (TEQ)/Nm3) and 3.11–40.0 ng/Nm3, respectively, in the stack gas. These concentrations were lower than those in other metallurgical processes, such as electric arc furnaces and iron ore sintering processes. The concentrations of PBDEs were 26–94 times higher than those of PBDD/Fs in the stack gas. The PBDD/F and PBDE emission factors in the stack gas from the steelmaking converter processes (per tonne of steel produced) were 0.048–0.59 µg/t (0.66–20.8 ng TEQ/t) and 6.36–76.6 µg/t, respectively. These data are helpful for establishing an emission inventory of PBDD/Fs from the converter steelmaking industry in China.


PBDD/F Converter steelmaking Emission factor Emission pattern

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