Any comprehensive simulation of air pollution in the Arctic requires an accurate emission inventory. Using a community global emission inventory EDGARv4.2 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research), GEOS-Chem modeling underestimated aerosol optical depth by 150–300% when compared to ground-based sites in Russia. Emissions from power plants, gas flaring, and mining were found significantly underestimated or even missing in EDGAR’s Russian emission inventory. Approximately 70% of Russian provinces had lower NOx and PM10 emission from power plants in EDGAR as compared to a Russian federal emission inventory. Emissions from gas flaring dominated in Russia’s main oil and gas producing regions. However, it is completely missing in EDGAR. In addition, EDGAR underestimated Russia’s mining emissions in most of its remote areas. Overall, we find EDGAR underestimated Russia’s emissions especially at high latitudes and this could overlook the impact of Russian emissions on the Arctic if EDGAR is used as input for models.