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Atmospheric Deposition Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Ambient Air of Southern Taiwan. Part I. Dry Depositions

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Volume: 14 | Issue: 7 | Pages: 1950-1965
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2014.07.0149
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Yu-Jung Tseng1, Hsiao-Hsuan Mi 2, Lien-Te Hsieh 3, Wei-Tung Liao4, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien5

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Environmental Engineering & Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71743, Taiwan
  • 3 Emerging Compounds Research Center (ECOREC), National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Pingtung, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Nan-Tai Street, Yungkang Dist., Tainan 71005, Taiwan
  • 5 Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan

Highlights

The dry deposition fluxes of PCDD/F-TEQ2005 increase with decreasing temperature.
The simulated average PCDD/F and PCB dry deposition fluxes are obtained.
The maximum dry deposition fluxes occurred in winter.


Abstract

Atmospheric deposition, including dry and wet deposition, is a primary pathway for the transfer of POPs to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In this study (that is, the part I.), the characteristics of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air of Tainan City were simulated by the PM10 versus PCDD/Fs concentration regression analysis, gas-particle partition modeling, and the simulation of dry deposition. Dry deposition fluxes are obtained from the combination of the PCDD/F and PCB concentrations, meteorological information, dry deposition velocities, and scavenging ratios. The dry deposition fluxes of PCDD/F-TEQ2005 increase with decreasing temperature, while increase with a higher degree of chlorine numbers on PCDD/F homologues. In this study (that is, the part I.), the average PCDD/F dry deposition fluxes in spring, summer, fall and winter were 69.3, 28.2, 129 and 246 pg WHO-TEQ/m2-month during 2012, respectively. As for 2013, the average PCDD/F dry deposition fluxes in spring, summer, fall and winter were 67.0, 29.8, 102 and 377 pg WHO-TEQ/m2-month, respectively. The average PCB dry deposition fluxes in spring, summer, fall and winter were 2.16, 1.99, 5.70 and 11.9 pg WHO-TEQ/m2-month during 2012, respectively. As for 2013, the average PCB dry deposition fluxes in spring, summer, fall and winter were 2.11, 1.27, 4.49 and 8.88 pg WHO-TEQ/m2-month, respectively. The minimum simulated value occurred in summer, while the maximum dry deposition fluxes, which were about 4–5 times higher than the minimum values, occurred in winter. The lower values observed in summer may be caused by the atmospheric diffusion of SVOCs and high rainfall intensity.

Keywords

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins Dibenzofurans Polychlorinated biphenyls Dry deposition Atmosphere


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