A study has been performed to develop PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5) chemically speciated source profiles of different industrial and domestic burning practices in India. A total of fifty-five PM2.5 samples have been collected in emissions resulting from (1) industrial furnaces, (2) household fuels, (3) municipal solid waste burning, and (4) welding workshop burning practices, and categorized for eleven subtypes of sources. The collected samples were subjected to chemical analysis for twenty-one elemental (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V, Zn), nine ionic (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl–, F–, NO3–, SO42–), OC, and EC source indicator species using atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and carbon analysis (thermal/optical transmittance method), respectively. The carbonaceous fraction was most abundant in household fuel burning emissions (47.6 ± 7.45% to 65.92 ± 13.13%). The ionic/elemental ratios of major inorganic constituents (Ca2+/Ca, Mg2+/Mg and Na+/Na) have been identified to describe the PM2.5 emissions from combustion or re-suspension dusts during industrial activities. Brick Kiln processes (BKP) have been identified as the major emitter of the highest number of toxic species (Cd, Co, Mo, Sb and V), followed by steel re-rolling mills (Hg and Pb) and steel processing industries (As, Ni). The source marker calculations also confirmed that K+, Mn, and As are good markers for biomass burning, metallurgical industrial emission, and coal burning, respectively, similar to the findings in previous studies.