Sensitivity to tropospheric ozone is highly variable in cultivars of different plant species. Wheat, an important cereal crop, has been found to be sensitive to elevated ozone levels leading to differences in grain yields. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of elevated tropospheric ozone on growth, yield and nutritional quality of two species of wheat, Triticum aestivum (PBW 343) and Triticum durum (HD 2936), which are tropical wheat cultivars commonly grown in northern India. Experiments were conducted growing winter wheat (rabi season) under elevated tropospheric ozone in northern India for two years in open-top chambers (OTCs) under charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF), open air (OA) and elevated ozone (EO) concentration (NF + 25–35 ppb O3). There were different species responses to EO, with the modern aestivum wheat cultivar being more sensitive than durum wheat. The declines in all growth and yield parameters were greater in T. aestivum than T. durum in both the years. On average there was a 7% greater reduction in the photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in T. aestivum as compared to T. durum under EO at the flowering stage, and a 6% more reduction in leaf chlorophyll was observed on T. aestivum as compared to T. durum. Exposure to elevated O3 caused a decrease in the number of leaves and leaf area index, rubisco enzyme activity and chlorophyll in both the species. More reductions in grain yield were observed in T. aestivum (15 and 19%) as compared to T. durum (9 and 13%) under EO in the two years, respectively. Filtration of air significantly increased all growth and yield parameters in both species of wheat.