This paper provides an overview of recent studies on the filtration of airborne nanoparticles. Classical filtration theory assumes that the efficiency of nanoparticle adhesion is at unity when nanoparticles strike a filter with a Brownian motion. However, it has been pointed out that small nanoparticles may have a sufficiently high impact velocity to rebound from the surface upon collision, a mechanism called thermal rebound. According to thermal rebound theory, the adhesion efficiency of nanoparticles decreases if their size is reduced. However, this phenomenon has not yet been clearly observed in experimental studies; there are still a number of uncertainties associated with the concept of thermal rebound, which is yet to be either proven or disproven. This review paper discusses the findings in the current literature related to thermal rebound theory.