PM2.5, PM10 and TSP source profiles for road dust, soil dust and re-suspended dust were established by adopting a re-suspension chamber in the coastal oilfield city of Dongying. Thirty-nine elements, nine ions, organic and elemental carbon were analyzed by multiple methods. The results indicate that Ca, Si, OC, Ca2+, Al, Fe and SO42– were the most abundant species for all the three types of dust within the three size fractions. OC/TC ratios were highest for dusts in Dongying when compared with those in the literature, which may be related to the large amounts of oil that is consumed in this area. Na, Mg and Na+ in soil and road dust also exhibited higher mass percentages, indicating the influence of sea salt, as the city is close to the coast. Enrichment factors analysis showed that Cd, Ca, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mg and As were enriched, and these elements were more abundant in finer fractions of the fugitive dust. Similarities of the profiles for different size fractions and different types of dust were compared using the coefficient of divergence (CD). The profiles for different types of dust were different from each other, as the CD values were mostly higher than 0.30. In contrast, the profiles for different size fractions of each dust were similar to each other, with the CD values mostly lower or near to 0.30. From analyzing the relationship between crustal material’s mass percentages and the total measured mass percentages of all chemical species, it can be concluded that the sources of road dust and resuspended dust are more complex, especially for fine particles.