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Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) Emission Behavior during Incineration of Laboratory Wastes. Part 2: PCDD/F Profiles and Characteristics of Output Materials

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Volume: 14 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 1206-1214
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2013.05.0141
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Wei-Tung Liao1, Ya-Fen Wang2, Cheng-Hsien Tsai3, Ying-I Tsai4, Zhong-Lin Wu5,6, Yi-Ming Kuo 7

  • 1 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li 320, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
  • 4 Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan City 717, Taiwan
  • 5 Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1, University Rd., East Dist., Tainan City 701, Taiwan
  • 6 Environmental Resource Management Research Center, Cheng Kung University, Annan Dist., Tainan City 709, Taiwan
  • 7 Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Rende Dist., Tainan City 717, Taiwan


Profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran, metals and Cl in incineration ashes were investigated.

The main metal species and crystalline phase in fly ashes was Na and NaCl, respectively.

The PCDD/F content of ashes was highly related to the Cl level in the input materials.

The Cl content was highest in FQA, followed by that in SQA, BHA, and BTA, and most of the Cl existed in soluble form.


This study investigates the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) profiles of output materials and the influence of Cl content of input materials during the incineration of laboratory waste. The specimens, namely bottom ash (BTA), first quenching tower ash (FQA), secondary quenching tower ash (SQA), baghouse ash (BHA), and stack flue gas (SFG), were sampled and analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), ion chromatography, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Cl content was highest in FQA, followed by that in SQA, BHA, and BTA, and most of the Cl existed in soluble form, especially for FQA and SQA. The Cl mass was mainly distributed in FQA and BTA during incineration. The PCDD/F content of ash in each category was highly related to the Cl level in the input materials. The PCDD/Fs of all ashes and the particulate phase of SFG were mainly 7-Cl or 8-Cl PCDD/Fs, but those of the gas phase in SFG were mainly 4-6 Cl PCDD/Fs. In addition, an increase of Cl in the input materials increased the fractions of 7-Cl and 8-Cl PCDD/Fs. The XRD analysis results indicate that the main crystalline phase in fly ashes was NaCl. FE-SEM images show a porous granular morphology, which is consistent with the XRD analysis results.


Fly ash Cl Crystalline phase Quenching tower

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