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The Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans from Steel and Cement-Kiln Plants in Vietnam

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Volume: 14 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 1189-1198
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2013.03.0099
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Nguyen Van Thuong1, Vu Duc Nam1, Nguyen Thi Minh Hue1, Le Ke Son1, Nguyen Van Thuy2, Hoang Duong Tung1, Nguyen Anh Tuan3, Tu Binh Minh4, Do Quang Huy4, Nguyen Hung Minh 1

  • 1 Dioxin Laboratory Project, Vietnam Environment Administration, No. 556 Nguyen Van Cu Str., Long Bien, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 2 Center For Environmental Monitoring, Vietnam Environment Administration, No. 556 Nguyen Van Cu, Long Bien, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 3 Pollution Control Department, Vietnam Environment Administration, No. 10 Ton That Thuyet Str., Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 4 Hanoi University of Science, Vietnam National University Hanoi, No. 19 Le Thanh Tong, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi, Vietnam

Abstract

Stack gas and fly ash samples were collected in two steel plants and three cement kiln plants for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). A standard sampling method (U.S EPA method 23) was used following the requirements for isokinetic sampling of stack gas emission. The quantification of PCDD/Fs was done by high resolution gas chromatography, coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The results demonstrated that PCDD/F concentrations in steel plants varied from 0.234 to 0.577 ng/Nm3 on a mass basis, and 0.048 to 0.166 ng/Nm3 on a TEQ basis. In cement kiln plants, the mass concentration varied from 0.280 to 5.32 ng/Nm3, while TEQ concentration varied from 0.033 to 0.837 ng TEQ/Nm3. In general, PCDD/F emissions from steel industry in Vietnam were slightly lower than those reported for European Union, and were comparable to those reported for Taiwan and Korea. A similar trend was observed for the emissions of PCDD/Fs from cement kiln industry in Vietnam. PCDD/F emission factors for steel and cement kiln industries were also estimated to compare with the guidelines of the UNEP for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) inventory.

Keywords

PCDD/Fs Emission Vietnam Steel industry Cement kiln Electric arc furnace


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