It would be convenient if we could achieve multi-component (organic and inorganic species) analysis using just one quartz fiber filter (QFF) as an aerosol collection medium. In general, QFF have been used for analyzing carbonaceous materials in aerosols. This study shows a nondestructive, rapid, and simple method using EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry) that has secondary targets and three-dimensional polarization optics for analyzing inorganic multi-elements in aerosols collected on QFFs. Multi-element analysis can be achieved by using EDXRF coupled with fundamental parameter (FP) quantification, as speed of up to 900 s (15 min) per sample. The EDXRF-FP method shows good repeatability, with generally less than 5% variation when measuring each analyzed element. While the elemental concentrations in the blank QFFs in any lots examined in this study could be considered to be lower than the actual samples, the blank level of Ni cannot be ignored. The EDXRF-FP results for each element of the aerosols collected on QFF agreed well with ICP-MS and ICP-AES results. The temporal variations of the selected elements in aerosols obtained by EDXRF-FP showed very good agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and AES, and thus this method is suitable for elucidating day-to-day variations of multi-elements in aerosols.