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Diurnal Variation and Chemical Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles and Their Source Fingerprints at Xiamen Bay

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Volume: 13 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 596-607
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2012.08.0206
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Tsung-Chang Li1, Chung-Yi Wu1, Wei-Hsiang Chen1, Chung-Shin Yuan 1,2, Shui-Ping Wu2, Xin-Hong Wang2, Ke Du3

  • 1 Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 2 State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
  • 3 Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China


This study investigated the diurnal variation of mass concentration and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol particles sampled at Xiamen Bay, located on the west bank of the Taiwan Strait. Atmospheric PM10 samples were collected at ten particulate matter (PM) sampling sites at Xiamen Bay, including five sites at the Kinmen Islands and five sites in urban Xiamen, at both daytime and nighttime during the regular and intensive sampling periods. Regular sampling was conducted to collect PM10 with high-volume samplers three times a month from April 2009 to April 2010, while intensive sampling was conducted to collect PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 with dichotomous samplers in the spring and winter of 2009 and 2010. This study further selected ten major emission sources (e.g., stone processing, power plants, soil dusts, and biomass burning) at Xiamen Bay to collect fugitive particulate samples which were then resuspended in a self-designed resuspension chamber to collect PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 with two separate dichotomous samplers for further chemical analysis.

The results from PM10 sampling indicated that atmospheric aerosol particles tended to be accumulated in Xiamen Bay all year round, but especially in spring and winter. A significant diurnal variation of PM10 was observed, with higher PM10 concentrations in the daytime during the regular sampling periods. The chemical analysis results showed that the major chemical components of PM10 were SO42–, NO3, NH4+, OC, EC, and crustal elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, and Al), which were usually higher in the daytime than at night at Xiamen Bay. The differences were most pronounced at night, where the concentrations of most anthropogenic elements (Ni, Cu, As, and V) were higher than those in the daytime. The elemental composition of PM emitted from stone processing and the cement industry were dominated by crustal elements, particularly Ca, whereas the profile of top-soil mainly contained Al and Ca. The profiles of industrial sources were dominated by secondary inorganic aerosols and EC. Moreover, construction and road dusts contained large amounts of Fe and Al, while biomass burning released large amounts of K, OC, and SO42–.


Xiamen Bay Atmospheric particulates Diurnal variation Resuspension chamber Source fingerprints

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