This study investigated the correlation between the antibacterial ability of silver nanoparticle air filters with the related dust loading. In addition, a decay equation with which the life cycle of the antibacterial air filters could be predicted was developed. Samples of a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter were coated with an antibacterial agent, silver nanoparticles, which were synthesized via an atmospheric spark discharge method and deposited onto the filters using forced convection flow. A specific amount of dust particles was then blown onto each filter sample. Two kinds of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), representing Gram-negative bacteria, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), representing Gram-positive bacteria, were used in order to examine the antibacterial abilities of the filter samples. The results of the disc diffusion method showed that the dust loading adversely affected the antibacterial efficacy. However, the silver nanoparticle mass density on a filter with a certain amount of dust does increase the antibacterial ability to a certain extent. Finally, decay equations for the decline rates of the antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. epidermidis were obtained with a dimensionless pressure drop across the antibacterial filter samples.