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Size Distribution and Water Soluble Ions of Ambient Particulate Matter on Episode and Non-episode Days in Southern Taiwan

Category: Articles

Volume: 12 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 263-274
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2011.10.0167

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Jiun-Horng Tsai1, Jian-Hung Lin1, Yung-Chen Yao2, Hung-Lung Chiang 3

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Sustainable Environmental Research Center, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
  • 2 Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan


Distribution of inorganic ions at an urban/industrial/agricultural complex was investigated in southern Taiwan during particulate matter (PM) episode and non-episode periods, and the Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and nano-MOUDI were employed to take PM samples. In PM episode periods, the PM significantly increased in mass concentration and in the size ranges of 0.1–1.0 and 1.8–18 μm at the site. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were the dominant ionic species and contributed a large fraction of PM mass in different sizes. The nitrate concentration increase on episode days could be attributed to the increase of precursor gas-NO2 concentration during these periods. In addition, SO2 was significantly correlated to SO42– in the nuclei mode (PM0.1), which indicated that the gas had transferred into particulate matter. The molar equivalent ratio of {[NO3] + [SO42–]}/[NH4+] was about 0.99 and revealed a high correlation that could indicate the presence of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate in PM1.


Particulate matter Size distribution Gas precursors Inorganic ions

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