Articles online

Reducing Air Pollution Emissions from Burning Incense with the Addition of Calcium Carbonate

Category: Articles

Volume: 12 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 972-980
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2011.09.0145
PDF | RIS | BibTeX

Chi-Ru Yang 1, Ta-Chang Lin2, Yen-Shun Peng3, Sun-Zone Lee1, Yih-Feng Chang4

  • 1 Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Environmental Engineering National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Environmental Resources Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan
  • 4 Institute of Hot Spring Industry, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan


A laboratory-scale study was performed to quantify the pollutant reduction effects from burning incense with the addition of CaCO3. Many studies have investigated the effects of burning incense on the quality of surrounding air, focusing primarily on particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the reduction of PM and PAHs from burning incense has received little attention. In our past study, we investigated nine types of commercially available incense and found that incense with a higher CaCO3 content had lower PM and PAH emissions factors. Five to thirty percent of CaCO3 was added to Liao and Chen incense powder, which are popular incense materials. The experimental results indicate that the reductions in the emissions of PM and PAHs from burning incense increased with along with amount of CaCO3 additive. Mean PM reductions for 5.0%, 10.0%, 20.0%, and 30.0% CaCO3 were 11 ± 2%, 15 ± 3%, 27 ± 1%, and 41 ± 3%, respectively. Mean particle-phase PAHs (P-PAHs) reductions were 9 ± 9%, 15 ± 5%, 22 ± 1%, and 28 ± 1%, respectively, and 5 ± 6%, 21 ± 1%, 21 ± 3%, and 30 ± 2% for total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (total BaPeq), respectively. This study was performed to quantify the reduction of PM and PAH emissions from burning incense with increasing amounts of CaCO3. The findings of this study may serve as a guide to producing safer and less-polluting incense.


Incense Calcium carbonate Particulate matter Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration

Related Article

Electrostatic Precipitation of Submicron Particles with an Enhanced Unipolar Pre-Charger

Zelong Liao, Yuheng Li, Xiangsheng Xiao, Chen Wang, Shang Cao, Yong Yang
Accepted Manuscripts
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.08.0261

Commuting in Los Angeles: Cancer and Non-Cancer Health Risks of Roadway, Light-Rail and Subway Transit Routes

Christopher Lovett, Farimah Shirmohammadi, Mohammad H. Sowlat, Constantinos Sioutas
Article In Press
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2017.09.0331

Critical Emissions from the Largest On-Road Transport Network in South Asia

Saroj Kumar Sahu , Gufran Beig, Neha Parkhi
Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 135-144
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2013.04.0137

Ambient Air Quality during Diwali Festival over Kolkata – A Mega-City in India

A. Chatterjee , C. Sarkar, A. Adak, U. Mukherjee, S.K. Ghosh, S. Raha
Volume: 13 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 1133-1144
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2012.03.0062