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PCDD/F Levels in the Stacks and Food of Fast Food Restaurants

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Volume: 11 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 437-447
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2011.05.0056
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Yuan-Chung Lin1, Tzi-Yi Wu2,3, Yan-Min Chen4, Yi-Ping Hsieh5, Ming-Tsan Hu6,7

  • 1 Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
  • 2 Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
  • 3 Department of Materials Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan
  • 4 Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
  • 5 Department of Medical Sociology and Social Work, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
  • 6 Environmental Protection Bureau, Pingtung County Government, Pingtung County 900, Taiwan
  • 7 Center of General Education, Tzu Hui Institute of Technology, Pingtung County 926, Taiwan


Trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are ubiquitous in the environment. This study determined the levels of PCDD/Fs in the stacks and food of fast food restaurants. The results indicate that the dominant contribution of PCDD/Fs concentration in the stacks of fast food restaurants is PCDFs. 2,3,7,8-TeCDF concentration measured in the stacks of fast food restaurants is the highest among the seventeen investigated PCDD/F congeners, accounting for about 17.9% of the total concentration. For the PCDD/F content in food before and after frying, the OCDD concentration was the highest among the seventeen investigated PCDD/F congeners, accounting for 22.3–93.3% of the total concentration before frying and 82.6–91.8% of the total concentration after frying. The total PCDD/F concentration in the food of fast food restaurants decreases significantly after frying. The mean emission factor and emission rate for total PCDD/Fs from the stacks of fast food restaurants are 208 pg/L and 12400 pg/min, respectively.


PCDD/Fs Food Restaurant Stack Emission factor Emission rate

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