OPEN ACCESS

Articles online

Identification of Sources of Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Category: Articles

Volume: 10 | Issue: 4 | Pages: 345-353
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2009.12.0082
PDF | Supplemental material | RIS | BibTeX

Bilkis A. Begum1, Swapan K. Biswas1, Andreas Markwitz2, Philip K. Hopke 3

  • 1 Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2 GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
  • 3 Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA

Abstract

In Bangladesh, the ambient air within Dhaka city is highly polluted by motor vehicle and brick kiln emissions. In addition, meteorological conditions during the winter cause increases in the fine particulate matter concentrations by factors of 4 to 5 fold compared to the rainy season. To understand the contribution of possible pollution sources, compositional data for both the coarse and fine fractions samples collected between May 2001 and March 2005 have been analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The results were compared with the previous source apportionment results. Conditional Probability Function (CPF) plots were developed for each source using local wind data to explore the directionality of local sources. Back trajectory ensemble methods were used to identify potential source regions and pathways of transboundary transport of PM2.2 apportioned sources. The Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) domain extended around the receptor site in Dhaka (23.77°N, 90.38°E) over the range from 1.5° to 42.5°N and 56.5° to 110.5°E. The PSCF results are compared to the conditional probability function (CPF) analyses that use 3 hour average local wind directional data to determine the likely directions for the sources. Both PSCF and CPF help to identify the potential source locations, but on different distance scales. These analyses demonstrate that coarse particles are dominated by local sources. However, local and regional source contributed to the elevated fine PM levels in Dhaka. Thus, regional control efforts will be required in addition to local initiatives to improve the air quality in mega cities in this region like Dhaka.

Keywords

PMF PSCF CPF Back trajectory


Related Article

Comparison of Two Receptor Model Techniques for the Size Fractionated Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

Kothai Parthasarathy, Sanjay Kumar Sahu, Gauri Girish Pandit
Volume: 16 | Issue: 6 | Pages: 1497-1508
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2015.06.0416
PDF | Supplemental material

Analysis of Organic Aerosol in Fukuoka, Japan Using a PMF Method

Akinori Takami , Takao Miyoshi, Satoshi Irei, Ayako Yoshino, Kei Sato, Atsushi Shimizu, Masahiko Hayashi, Keiichiro Hara, Naoki Kaneyasu, Shiro Hatakeyama
Volume: 16 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 314-322
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2015.03.0145
PDF

Critical Emissions from the Largest On-Road Transport Network in South Asia

Saroj Kumar Sahu , Gufran Beig, Neha Parkhi
Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 135-144
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2013.04.0137
PDF

Ambient Air Quality during Diwali Festival over Kolkata – A Mega-City in India

A. Chatterjee , C. Sarkar, A. Adak, U. Mukherjee, S.K. Ghosh, S. Raha
Volume: 13 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 1133-1144
DOI: 10.4209/aaqr.2012.03.0062
PDF
;